The conditions of the relief and the predominant climate in the Montanhas Mágicas provide the ideal conditions for the existence of an exuberant and diversified flora, with extensive areas of native flora and several rare species
VERTEBRATES 

The Iberian wolf has in Montanhas Mágicas® its southern distribution limits, reason why the Gralheira Massif and the Montemuro Mountain are, to the south of the Douro, two of the last refuges for this amazing species. The birds of prey, like the peregrine falcon and the Eurasian eagle-owl, find the perfect places to breed in the escarpments. The otter is present in all rivers and the rare Pyrenean desman has in the mountain rivers one of the most propitious habitats for its survival. The white-throated dipper, which learns how to swim before learning how to fly and that can be found in every curve of the rivers, very often takes care of its offspring in the many existing waterfalls. The Paiva River is famous for its trout and the eels and lampreys that still go up the Vouga River are living testimonies of the resistance to migration throughout thousands of the ocean’s kilometers. The bats have occupied the old mining galleries and woodlands, reason why some of the most important populations of these curious winged mammals can be found in these lands. The rare gold-striped salamander can frequently be seen in the mountain rivers and valleys’ wet meadows, where the Iberian emerald lizard is almost a plague. The five-fingered skink is present in the most thermophilic valleys and its cousin, the western three-toed skink, can easily be sighted at the mountain loams and lagoons. 


INVERTEBRATES 

The invertebrates have in the Paiva, Vouga and Teixeira Rivers a sanctuary for their existence: the thick shelled river mussel of the North, the macromia splendens or the slug are not only present, but also abundant, in these habitats. The delicate small-toothed butterfly is also an obligatory presence on the riversides with a well-established river gallery, and the rare Phengaris alcon finds the best habitat in Portugal on the banks of the Balsemão River. The bizarre lucanus servus is present in oak forests, constituting an excellent indicator of mature forests. The scarce macromia splendens can be found on fluvial beaches grooved with alders and the white admiral, nymphalis antiopa and large tortoiseshell butterflies often lurk through the riverbank’s foliage. 


OTHER VERTEBRATES (BIRDS): 

Common buzzard, kingfishers, common rock thrush, capped heron, European robin, great tit, great cormorant, bullfinch, great spotted woodpecker, carduelis, hoopoe, hen harrier.